No. This is a cash discount and includes a consultation with Dr Hagmeyer.
This is a blood test that requires a blood draw.
Web results are posted within 7-14 business days. Our office will notify you when test results have been reported.
You will take provided Blood work requisition and test kit (If applicable) to the blood draw center on the day of your appointment.
Yes. Dr Hagmeyer will review the test result with you. Each test comes with a 30-45 minute post-test review/explanation.
One we have placed the order for the test we are unable to issue a refund.
This bloodwork is for Dr Hagmeyer’s patients who are getting retested or are getting their yearly bloodwork done
- Parathyroid Hormone
- Testo, Free [Incl.
- Total, Albumin,
- T3 – Triiodothyronine
- T4 – Thyroxine
- Free T3
- Free T4
- Reverse T3
- Beta Cell Function
- Hemoglobin A1c
- Fatty Acids: Omega-3 & 6†
PCOS testing Blood tests for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) measure pituitary, adrenal, and thyroid hormones, cholesterol, and blood sugar. These tests rule out other conditions that cause similar symptoms as PCOS.
Abnormal estrogen levels are also common with PCOS. Estrogen can be high or low with PCOS. Estrogen is the star hormone of the female reproductive system. Its levels rise and fall throughout the cycle. When estrogen levels are high, it prompts the release of other hormones that stimulate ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, estrogen levels drop, prompting menstruation.
Estrogen works in tandem with progesterone and other hormones to regulate the menstrual cycle. Both low and high estrogen levels can contribute to longer menstrual cycles, a common symptom of PCOS.
High estrogen levels are linked to estrogen dominance, a hormone imbalance associated with irregular menstrual cycles. In women with PCOS, high estrogen levels are believed to be caused by the conversion of insulin and testosterone into estradiol, a form of estrogen.
FSH stands for follicle-stimulating hormone, which is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a vital role in the reproductive system by stimulating the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), FSH levels may be altered.
PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects reproductive-aged women. It is characterized by hormonal imbalances, irregular or absent menstrual periods, and the presence of cysts on the ovaries. It is also associated with symptoms such as excessive hair growth, acne, weight gain, and infertility.
In PCOS, there is an imbalance between FSH and another hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH). LH levels are often elevated in women with PCOS, while FSH levels may be normal or low. This imbalance disrupts the normal menstrual cycle and ovulation process. Without sufficient FSH stimulation, the ovarian follicles may not mature properly, leading to the formation of small cysts on the ovaries instead of releasing eggs.
The altered FSH levels in PCOS can contribute to infertility and problems with ovulation. It is important to note that FSH levels alone are not used as a diagnostic tool for PCOS. Diagnosis is typically made based on the presence of multiple cysts on the ovaries, irregular menstrual cycles, and other hormonal imbalances.
LH, or luteinizing hormone, is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the menstrual cycle by stimulating the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation). In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), LH levels may be altered.
One of the defining characteristics of PCOS is an excess production of androgens (male hormones) by the ovaries. This hormonal imbalance can disrupt the normal menstrual cycle and ovulation. LH levels are often elevated in women with PCOS. The excess LH stimulates the ovaries to produce more androgens, leading to symptoms such as irregular or absent menstrual periods, acne, and excessive hair growth.
The elevated LH levels in PCOS can also contribute to the formation of multiple cysts on the ovaries, as well as difficulties with ovulation and fertility. This is because the excessive LH can prevent the release of a mature egg from the ovary, resulting in irregular or absent ovulation.
Management of PCOS often involves addressing the hormonal imbalances. This may include lifestyle changes such as adopting a healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management.
It’s important to remember that LH levels alone are not used as a diagnostic tool for PCOS.
Diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of symptoms, hormonal imbalances, and imaging studies such as ultrasound to visualize the ovaries.
DHEA, or dehydroepiandrosterone, is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It plays a role in the production of sex hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the context of PCOS, DHEA can be elevated in some women with the condition.
In PCOS, the ovaries produce higher levels of androgens, which are male hormones like testosterone. This elevated level of androgens can lead to symptoms such as excessive hair growth, acne, and irregular menstrual cycles. DHEA is one of the androgens that can be produced in excess in PCOS.
Elevated DHEA levels in PCOS may contribute to the overall hormonal imbalance and symptoms of the condition. Measuring DHEA levels can be part of the diagnostic process for PCOS, along with other hormone tests.
Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands and is involved in the body’s response to stress.
In the context of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cortisol levels may be relevant as PCOS is associated with increased stress levels and altered cortisol regulation.
Stress and cortisol levels can impact hormonal balance and contribute to the symptoms of PCOS.
Stress can exacerbate the hormonal imbalances seen in PCOS, including elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) and insulin resistance, which can worsen symptoms such as irregular menstrual cycles, acne, hair growth, and difficulties with weight management.
Additionally, cortisol can have an impact on the adrenal glands’ production of other hormones, including the androgens DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and testosterone.
Dysregulation of cortisol levels and increased production of androgens can further contribute to the hormonal imbalances seen in PCOS.
Why does it matter if women with PCOS have different cortisol patterns or excess androgens? When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands to correct low blood sugar, adrenal androgens, such as DHEA, are also released in PCOS women. The dysregulated adrenal response due to blood sugar instability further contributes to androgen excess.
Androgen imbalance in PCOS patients appears to promote visceral fat accumulation. Adipose tissue is metabolically active and contributes to insulin resistance.
Increased adipose tissue leads to a decrease in SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin); this allows for a greater amount of testosterone and other androgens to be free in the bloodstream. Thus, there is a vicious cycle of androgen excess leading to weight gain and insulin resistance, which furtherer increases androgen levels in the body.
Managing stress and cortisol levels can be an important part of managing PCOS.
In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), progesterone levels may be altered or imbalanced. Progesterone is a hormone produced by the ovaries and is important for regulating the menstrual cycle and preparing the uterus for pregnancy.
In PCOS, there is often a disruption in the normal hormonal balance, including low levels of progesterone. This can result in irregular or absent menstrual periods.
Irregular or absent periods can be a sign of anovulation, which means that ovulation does not occur regularly or at all.
Without ovulation, the corpus luteum, a structure that forms after ovulation, does not develop properly and therefore fails to produce sufficient levels of progesterone.
Low progesterone levels in PCOS can contribute to other symptoms as well. Progesterone helps to counterbalance the effects of estrogen, so an imbalance between estrogen and progesterone can lead to symptoms such as breast tenderness, mood swings, and bloating.
It’s important to see a healthcare professional if you suspect you have PCOS or are experiencing symptoms such as irregular periods, as they can help guide you through diagnosis and treatment options.
Overall, maintaining balanced progesterone levels is an important part of managing PCOS and promoting overall reproductive health.
PTH is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are small glands located in the neck.
PTH plays a crucial role in regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the body.
Some research suggests that calcium and vitamin D metabolism may be impaired in women with PCOS. Vitamin D deficiency, which can affect calcium regulation, has been associated with PCOS. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to increased PTH levels as the body tries to compensate for low calcium levels.
High levels of PTH can potentially have indirect effects on PCOS through its impact on calcium metabolism and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is often seen in women with PCOS and is involved in the hormonal imbalances characteristic of the condition.
Some studies suggest that increased PTH levels may exacerbate insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS.
While there is no direct association between PTH and PCOS, it is worth noting that PCOS can be associated with other metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and obesity.
These conditions can indirectly affect calcium metabolism and potentially impact parathyroid function and PTH levels.
PCOS is a complicated hormone disorder. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, an ultrasound to look at your reproductive organs and thorough personal and family histories should be completed before a PCOS diagnosis is confirmed.
Prolactin and PCOS are two separate hormonal factors that can be involved in certain cases.
Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain, and its primary function is to stimulate milk production in pregnant and breastfeeding women.
High levels of prolactin outside of pregnancy or breastfeeding can be associated with various health conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
In some cases, women with PCOS may have elevated prolactin levels, a condition known as hyperprolactinemia.
Hyperprolactinemia can disrupt the normal balance of hormones in the body, leading to menstrual irregularities and fertility issues in women with PCOS.
PCOS itself is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by imbalances in reproductive hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and androgens (male hormones).
These imbalances can result in irregular menstrual cycles, ovulatory dysfunction, and the development of cysts on the ovaries.
While elevated prolactin levels can be seen in some women with PCOS, it is important to note that not all women with PCOS will have hyperprolactinemia, and not all women with hyperprolactinemia will have PCOS.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent metabolite of testosterone, which is an androgen or male hormone. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there can be increased production or sensitivity to androgens, including DHT.
DHT plays a role in the development of PCOS because it contributes to the characteristic hormonal imbalances and symptoms associated with the condition. It can have several effects on the body:
Excessive Hair growth: Excess testosterone can convert into DHT which stimulate hair follicles in certain parts of the body, such as the face, chest, back, and abdomen, leading to increased hair growth (hirsutism).
This is one of the common symptoms in women with PCOS.
Ovarian Function: Increased levels of DHT in women with PCOS can disrupt the normal development and release of eggs from the ovaries, leading to an-ovulation (lack of ovulation) or irregular ovulation.
Insulin Resistance: DHT has been proposed to contribute to insulin resistance, a metabolic condition often associated with PCOS.
Insulin resistance can further exacerbate androgen production and disrupt normal hormonal balance.
It’s important to note that while DHT plays a role in PCOS, it is not the only contributing factor.
PCOS is a complex condition with multiple underlying causes, including genetic, hormonal, immune, Gut and environmental factors.
Pregnenolone is a hormone that serves as a precursor to other hormones in the body, including estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. It is produced in the adrenal glands and is involved in various physiological processes.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is often an increase in the production of androgens, particularly testosterone. Androgens are male hormones, but they are also produced in smaller amounts in women. High levels of androgens in women with PCOS can lead to symptoms such as acne, excessive hair growth (hirsutism), and irregular menstrual cycles.
One specific measurement that can be done to assess androgen levels is the free testosterone test. Free testosterone refers to the testosterone that is not bound to proteins in the blood and is available for use by the body’s tissues. This test, along with other hormonal assessments, can help diagnose and monitor PCOS.
Total testosterone levels can also be evaluated in the diagnosis and management of PCOS. Total testosterone includes both the free testosterone and the testosterone that is bound to proteins in the blood.
Elevated levels of total testosterone are commonly seen in women with PCOS. High testosterone levels alone does not confirm a diagnosis of PCOS. PCOS is a clinical diagnosis that is based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, hormonal assessments, and sometimes imaging studies.
Albumin is a protein produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in the bloodstream. It has several important functions, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood and carrying various substances such as hormones and drugs.
Studies have observed decreased albumin levels in women with PCOS compared to women without the condition. It is thought that this decrease in albumin levels could be linked to insulin resistance, which often coexists with PCOS.
Insulin resistance can lead to changes in liver function and alterations in protein metabolism, including the production of albumin.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein that binds to sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, in the bloodstream. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is often a decrease in SHBG levels.
Low levels of SHBG can contribute to higher levels of free testosterone, as SHBG helps to bind and regulate the activity of testosterone in the body. When SHBG levels are low, more testosterone remains free and available for use by the body’s tissues, which can lead to symptoms of PCOS such as acne, hirsutism, and irregular menstrual cycles.
Measuring SHBG levels, along with other hormonal assessments, can help in the diagnosis and management of PCOS.
T3 – Triiodothyronine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid disorders are both endocrine disorders that can coexist in some individuals. Research suggests that there may be a connection between PCOS and thyroid dysfunction.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there can be alterations in thyroid hormone function, including changes in T3 levels. T3, or triiodothyronine, is an active form of thyroid hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and energy production in the body.
Some studies have reported that women with PCOS may have higher levels of total T3 and free T3 compared to women without PCOS. However, these findings are not consistent across all studies, and alterations in T3 levels can vary among individuals with PCOS.
T4 – Thyroxine
Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), leading to a slowdown in metabolism. Some studies suggest that there may be an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in women with PCOS.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is growing evidence suggesting that there may be alterations in thyroid hormone levels, including free T3 (triiodothyronine). Free T3 represents the active form of thyroid hormone that is available for use by the body’s cells.
Some studies have reported that women with PCOS may have higher levels of free T3 compared to women without PCOS.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there may be alterations in free T4 (thyroxine) levels. Free T4 is the active form of thyroid hormone that is available for use by the body’s cells.
Some studies have reported that women with PCOS may have lower free T4 levels compared to women without PCOS.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there can be alterations in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. TSH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).
Some studies have reported that women with PCOS may have higher TSH levels compared to women without PCOS. This suggests that there may be an increased prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in women with PCOS. Subclinical hypothyroidism refers to a condition in which TSH levels are elevated, but thyroid hormone levels (T3 and T4) are still within the normal range.
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies are auto-antibodies that attack the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and potential damage. They are commonly seen in autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease.
Studies have reported an increased prevalence of TPO antibodies in women with PCOS compared to women without PCOS. This suggests a potential link between PCOS and autoimmune thyroid issues.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, leading to chronic inflammation. Women with PCOS may have a higher risk of developing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) are auto-antibodies that target thyroglobulin, a protein involved in the production of thyroid hormones. Elevated levels of TgAb are commonly associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease.
Studies have observed an increased prevalence of TgAb in women with PCOS compared to women without PCOS.
Thyroid dysfunction, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, can present with symptoms overlapping with those of PCOS.
Reverse T3 (rT3) is an inactive form of thyroid hormone that is produced in the body. It is derived from the conversion of the active form of thyroid hormone, T4, into T3. In some cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there may be alterations in rT3 levels.
Studies have suggested that women with PCOS may have higher rT3 levels compared to women without PCOS.
Elevated rT3 levels can interfere with the action of the active form of thyroid hormone, T3, which may result in symptoms of hypothyroidism, despite normal levels of T4 or free T3.
Ferritin is a protein involved in storing iron in the body. Iron metabolism and ferritin levels can be affected in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Several studies have reported that women with PCOS may have lower ferritin levels compared to women without PCOS. This suggests that there may be a higher prevalence of iron deficiency in women with PCOS. Iron deficiency can result from various factors, including poor dietary intake, chronic inflammation, and menstrual irregularities common in PCOS.
Iron deficiency can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and difficulty concentrating.
Insulin plays a significant role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormonal disorder characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body’s cells are less responsive to the effects of insulin. This leads to increased insulin production by the pancreas as the body tries to compensate for the decreased sensitivity.
The elevated insulin levels associated with PCOS can have several effects on the body:
1. Increased androgen production: Insulin resistance can stimulate the ovaries to produce higher levels of androgens, such as testosterone. This can contribute to the symptoms of PCOS, including irregular menstrual cycles, acne, and excessive hair growth.
2. Ovulation disruption: High insulin levels can interfere with normal ovulation, leading to irregular or absent menstrual cycles and difficulty getting pregnant.
3. Weight gain: Insulin resistance can make it easier to gain weight and more difficult to lose weight, which is a common issue for many women with PCOS.
4. Metabolic complications: Insulin resistance is associated with an increased risk of developing conditions like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels.
Managing insulin resistance is a key component in the treatment of PCOS. Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, maintaining a healthy diet, and weight management can help improve insulin sensitivity.
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is often a connection with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. In PCOS, the body may have difficulty using insulin effectively, leading to insulin resistance. This means that the body needs to produce higher levels of insulin to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
Insulin resistance in PCOS can result in higher levels of insulin in the blood, known as hyperinsulinemia.
This can lead to several effects on glucose metabolism:
1. Elevated blood sugar levels: Insulin resistance can impair the ability of cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).
2. Increased production of insulin: In response to insulin resistance, the pancreas may produce more insulin to compensate for the decreased effectiveness. This can further contribute to higher blood levels of insulin.
3. Risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: Prolonged insulin resistance and elevated insulin levels can increase the risk of developing prediabetes and eventually type 2 diabetes.
Managing glucose levels in PCOS is crucial to minimize the risk of developing diabetes and promote overall health.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a blood test used to measure average blood sugar levels over a period of 2 to 3 months. It is typically used as a diagnostic tool for diabetes and as a marker for blood sugar control in individuals with diabetes.
In the context of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is an increased risk of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body’s cells become less responsive to the effects of insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. This can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
HbA1c levels may be used to assess blood sugar control in individuals with PCOS, particularly those who have insulin resistance or are at risk of developing diabetes. Elevated HbA1c levels can indicate poorer blood sugar control and an increased risk of developing diabetes.
Managing blood sugar levels is an important aspect of managing PCOS.
Fatty Acids: Omega-3 & 6
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential polyunsaturated fats that play important roles in the body’s overall health, including the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are necessary for normal bodily functions, the ratio between these two types of fatty acids is crucial for optimal health.
In PCOS, there is often an imbalance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, with a higher intake of omega-6 fatty acids compared to omega-3 fatty acids. This imbalanced ratio can contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation, which is commonly observed in individuals with PCOS.
Omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake may help reduce inflammation and alleviate some symptoms associated with PCOS, such as insulin resistance and irregular menstrual cycles.